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            翻译赏析:理雅各和许渊冲《诗经》英译本比较

            yun 于2017-01-16发布 l 已有人浏览
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            《诗经》是中国最早的诗集,英译本版本众多,且各具特色。本文将比较其中影响力较大的理雅各译本和许渊冲译本。

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            《诗经》是中国最早的诗集,英译本版本众多,且各具特色。本文将比较其中影响力较大的理雅各译本和许渊冲译本。两位译者都是顶尖的翻译大家,但因两位译者所处的时代、背景、身份、经历等都不尽相同,且由于各自不同的翻译目的,两个译本之间存在较大的差异。

            理雅各是完整翻译《诗经》的第一人,?#24247;?#24544;实原文,翻译更偏向直译。其译本通常不仅包括原诗及其翻译,还增加了详尽的解释和评注,因此译本较长。而许渊冲的译本践行?#20439;约?#25552;出的“三美”论(意美、音美、形美)。许渊冲认为翻译最重要的是要尽可能保持原作的美,为了不损害《诗经》的简洁之美,译文没有过多的注释。

            例1、昔我往矣,杨柳依依。今我来思,雨雪霏霏。

            理译:And no one knows our sadness.

                     At first, when we set out,

                     The willows were fresh and green;

                     Now, when we shall be returing,

                     The snow will be falling in clouds.

            许译:When I left here,

                     Willows shed tear.

                      I come back now,

                     Snow bends the bough.

            解析:两种译本通过不同的诗歌形式,都保留了原诗的意义。理雅各的译本提供了大量详细注释和评论,读起来更像散文,具有很高的学术价值。而许渊冲的译本通过运用?#19979;桑?#22312;保留原诗美学的同时,韵脚工整,格律严格。

                     原诗结构一致,讲究押韵。理雅各严格遵守原诗的句子结构和顺序,但没有押韵,读起来更像是富?#27427;?#24863;散文。许渊冲煞费苦心来保留原诗音韵美,译文?#19979;?#26684;式采用:AABBCC,每行?#27597;?#38899;节,双行押韵,且语言力求简短。

            例2、彼采葛兮。一日不见,如三月兮。

                   彼采萧兮。一日不见,如三秋兮。

                   彼采艾兮。一日不见,如三岁兮。

            理译:There he is gathering the dolichos!                                    Is like three seasons!

                     A day without seeing him                                                 There he is gathering the mugwort!

                     Is like three months!                                                        A day without seeing him

                     There he is gathering the oxtail-southerwood!                    Is like three years!

                     A day without seeing him

            许译:One Day when I See Her Not                                             When her I do not see,

                     To gather vine goes she                                                    One day seems long as seasons three.

                     When her I do not see,                                                     To gather herbs goes she.

                     One day seems longer than months three.                        When her I do not see,

                     To gather reed goes she.                                                   One day seems longer than years three.

            解析:该诗用重调叠咏的手法形象生动地描写了相爱青年?#20449;?#24444;此思念的心情。全诗由三节组成,“一日不见”在每节重复,其他?#24184;?#21482;改动了一个字,情感程度逐渐?#30001;睢?#20004;译本都保留了原诗的重调叠?#21073;?#20294;实现的方式有所不同。理雅各直译原诗的每一个词,?#24066;?#27809;有发生任何变化,用?#35270;?#32467;构与原诗完全一致,较为可惜的是没有像原诗一样押韵。许渊冲没有字字对译,对?#24066;?#20570;了灵活处理,以更好地传递原诗字里行间所表露出的深层含义和情?#23567;6杂?#31532;二节?#25945;?#37096;分“long as"稍作变动,全诗没有完全一致采用 “longer than".

            例3、 召南·野有死麕
                   
                    野有死麕,白茅包之。?#20449;?#24576;春,吉士诱之。

                    林有朴樕,野有死鹿。白茅纯束,?#20449;?#22914;玉。

                    舒而脱脱兮,无感我帨兮,无使尨也吠。

            理译:In the wild there is a dead antelope,                                  And it is bound round with the white grass.

                     And it is wrapped up with the white grass.                         There is a young lady like a gem.

                     There is a young lady with thoughts natural to the spring,   [She says], Slowly, gently, gently;

                     And a fine gentleman would lead her astray.                       Do not move my handkerchief;

                     In the forest there are th scrubby oaks;                             Do not make my dog bark.

                     In the wild there is a dead deer,

            许译:An antelope is killed                                                          He sees the white-drest maid

                    And wrapped in white afield.                                               As beautiful as jade.

                    A maid for love does long,                                                  “O soft and slow, weetheart,

                    Tempted by a hunter strong.                                               Don't tear my sash apart!"

                    He cuts down trees amain                                                   The jadelike maid says,"Hark!

                    And kills a deer again.                                                         Do not let the dog bark.

            解析:从译文可以看出理译和许译对主题的理解十分不同。理雅各在注解中解释说该诗告诉我们”一位贞洁的年轻女子如何抵御玩弄女性的骗子的引诱。”理雅各认为诗中的女子拒绝?#22235;?#23376;的引诱,因此是个贞洁之人。而许渊冲持不同观点,译者认为诗中前段“猎人猎杀一头鹿,用白茅包好,作为礼物送给女子”便表明两者认识,女子并未拒?#24189;?#23376;。

            由于两位译者的翻译目的不同,译者自身的经历,时代环境等等诸多因素都大相径庭,所以采取的翻译方法也各不相同。两种译文各有所长,?#26434;凇?#35799;经》翻译都有很高的借鉴意义和研?#32771;?#20540;。      

            【文章来源:沪江英语】
             

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